Elevated levels of urine CXCL16, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in patients with active disease. (A) Creatinine (Cr)-normalized urine levels of CXC ligand 16 (CXCL16), (B) monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), (C) vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and (D) protein in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with inactive disease (n = 14), active renal disease (n = 59) and healthy controls (n = 13). Each dot represents one individual.
Singh et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R164 doi:10.1186/ar3912