Elevated levels of urine CXCL16, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in patients with lupus nephritis. (A) Creatinine (Cr)-normalized urine levels of CXC ligand 16 (CXCL16), (B) monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and (C) vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (n = 73) and healthy controls (n = 13), segregated according to their ethnicity (AA, African American). (D) Receiver operating characteristic curves relating the specificity and sensitivity profiles of the three urinary molecules. AUC, area under curve.
Singh et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R164 doi:10.1186/ar3912