B cell phenotype distribution before rituximab. Frequencies of (a) CD27- IgD- double-negative B cells and (b) CD27++ IgD- plasmablast in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at baseline and in healthy age-matched controls. The percentages of CD38hi cells within (c) the post-switch memory B cells and (d) plasmablasts (that is, late plasmablasts ) are shown. (e) The frequency of CD95+ cells within the pre-switch memory B cells is depicted. Significant differences between the populations using Mann-Whitney-test are indicated. Of note, the difference between non-responders and responders was significant using univariate logistic regression analysis.
Brezinschek et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R161 doi:10.1186/ar3901