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Open Access Research article

Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy improves insulin sensitivity in normal-weight but not in obese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou123*, Giorgos S Metsios34, Vasileios F Panoulas3, Peter Nightingale5, Yiannis Koutedakis12 and George D Kitas36

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala- Karyes Road, Trikala, 42100, Greece

2 Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Centre for Research and Technology, Trikala, 42100, Greece

3 Department of Rheumatology, Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust, Russell's Hall Hospital, Pensnett Road, Dudley, DY1 2HQ, West Midlands, UK

4 School of Sport, Performing Arts & Leisure, Wolverhampton University, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS1 3BD, West Midlands, UK

5 Wolfson Laboratory, Department of Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK

6 Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R160  doi:10.1186/ar3900

Published: 5 July 2012

Abstract

Introduction

Insulin resistance (IR), a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, is common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation, and especially tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), has been associated with IR, and the administration of anti-TNFα agents is suggested to improve insulin sensitivity. However obesity, a potent contributor to IR, may limit the beneficial effects of anti-TNFα medication on IR. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of anti-TNFα therapy on IR between normal-weight and obese patients with RA.

Methods

Patients who were normal-weight with IR (N+IR) or obese with IR (O+IR) and had embarked on anti-TNFα treatment, participated. Assessments included body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA and the Quantitative Insulin sensitivity Check Index, QUICKI), and RA disease characteristics before and following six months of anti-TNFα treatment. Their results were compared to matched (for age, gender, BMI, disease duration and smoking status) normal-weight patients without IR (N-IR) and obese without IR (N-IR), respectively. In total, 32 patients were assessed for this study, with 8 in each group.

Results

Following six months of treatment, disease activity was significantly reduced in all groups (P < 0.05) to a similar extent (P for differences between groups > 0.05 in all cases). In the total population, changes in HOMA (mean reduction at 6 m = -0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.088) and QUICKI (mean increase at 6 m = 0.03 ± 0.022; P = 0.092) after treatment were not statistically significant, though a trend towards improvement was observed. However, N+IR patients showed a significant decrease in HOMA (mean reduction at 6 m = -0.54 ± 0.2; P = 0.002) and increase in QUICKI (mean increase at 6 m = 0.046 ± 0.02; P = 0.011). These changes were significantly different compared to the other groups (P < 0.05 in all cases). Multivariable analyses showed that the change in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and the change in C-Reactive Protein (CRP) associated with the improvement in HOMA (ESR: F1-7 = 5.143, P = 0.019; CRP: F1-7 = 3.122, P = 0.022) and QUICKI (ESR: F1-7 = 3.814, P = 0.021; CRP: F1-7 = 2.67; P = 0.041) only in the N+IR group.

Conclusions

Anti-TNFα therapy, through controlling inflammation, seems to improve insulin sensitivity in normal-weight RA patients with insulin resistance, but is not sufficient to achieving the same beneficial effect in obese RA patients with insulin resistance.