Synergy between MSU and Pam3Cys in the induction of IL-1β was greater in patients than controls. Release of IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B), IL-8 (C) and TNFα (D) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with gout and healthy donors after having been left untreated (RPMI) or stimulated by monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals alone or in combination with palmitoyl-3-cystein [Pam3Cys]. Asterisks denote outliers and circles denote extremes. P values indicate significant differences between respective values of patients and healthy controls by Mann-Whitney U-test. Gout patients n = 18 and healthy controls n = 12.
Mylona et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R158 doi:10.1186/ar3898