PBMCs from gout patients produce more IL-1βand IL-6 compared to healthy controls when exposed to TLR ligands. Release of IL-1β(A), IL-6 (B), IL-8 (C) and TNFα (D) by PBMCs of patients with gout and healthy donors after their stimulation with growth medium (RPMI), palmitoyl-3-cystein [Pam3Cys] (TLR2/1 agonist) or fibroblast stimulation ligand-1 [FLS-1] (TLR2/6 ligand). Asterisks denote outliers and circles denote extremes. Gout patients n = 18 and healthy controls n = 12. PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; TLR, toll-like receptor.
Mylona et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R158 doi:10.1186/ar3898