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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Hydroxychloroquine is associated with impaired interferon-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

Karim Sacre12, Lindsey A Criswell3 and Joseph M McCune1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Medicine, Division of Experimental Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA

2 Department of Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, APHP, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris Diderot University, 46 rue Henri Huchard, Paris, 75018 France

3 Department of Medicine, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California San Francisco, 374 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R155  doi:10.1186/ar3895

Published: 27 June 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1. Panel of antibodies used. Additional file 1, Figure S1. Flow cytometry gating Strategy. Gating strategy by flow cytometry for the detection of monocytes (singlet1 (forward scatter A (FSC-A) × FSC-H diagonal), live (Aqua)-, HLA-DR+, CD14+ cells), NK (singlet, live, HLA-DR-, CD16+ cells), B cells (singlet, live, HLA-DR+, CD14-, CD20+ cells), mDCs (singlet, live, HLA-DR+, CD14- cells, CD20-, CD11c+) and pDCs (singlet, live, HLA-DR+, CD14- cells, CD20-, CD123+). 1 gated singlet live means that all potential doublets were excluded from the analysis. Additional file 1, Figure S2. Frequency of circulating pDCs, pDCs IFN-α+/TNF-α+ after TLR-9/7 stimulation and age. (A) Comparison of the frequency of circulating pDCs found in SLE subjects receiving (black circles) or not (black squares) hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). (B) Absence of statistical correlation between the frequency of CD123+ pDCs IFN-α+ (white triangles) or TNF-α+ (black triangles) after TLR-9 (left) or TLR-7 (right) stimulation and age. Additional file 1, Figure S3. pDC production of IFN-α/TNF-α upon TLR-9/7 stimulation in SLE subjects treated with HCQ. Comparison of the frequency of pDCs (CD123+ cells) producing IFN-α (left) and TNF-α (right) after TLR-9 (A) or TLR-7 (B) stimulation between SLE subjects that were receiving 200 mg (HCQ 200 mg, black circles) or 400 mg (HCQ 400 mg, black squares) of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ).

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