Additional file 1.

Nucleus pulposus cells were cotransfected with the Klotho reporter plasmid along with 500 ng of Dkk1, Dkk2, Dkk3, Dkk4, or the empty backbone vector, and the reporter activity was measured (left panel). Nucleus pulposus cells were cotransfected with the Klotho promoter plasmid along with increasing quantities (100 to 500 ng) of the Dkk1 expression plasmid or with the empty backbone vector, and the reporter activity was measured (right panel). The results were normalized for transfection efficiency and are expressed as a relative ratio of luciferase to pGL4.74 activities (denoted as relative activity). *P < 0.05 between groups. Error bars represent SDs. NS, not significant.

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Hiyama et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R105   doi:10.1186/ar3830