Table 1

Energy/ATP-consuming functions of immune cells

Function

ATP-dependent process

References


Housekeeping function

Active transport of molecules and ions

Na+ K+-ATPase

Ca2+-ATPase

[1,79]

Macromolecule synthesis

Protein synthesis

RNA/DNA synthesis

[79,80]

Specific immune functions

Motor functions

Cytoskeletal rearrangement

Actomyosin-ATPase

[1,81]

Transendothelial migration

Rho-GTPase

[82]

Antigen processing and presentation

Proteasomal protein degradation (for example, 26S)

AAA-ATPases

[83]

Antigen processing

ATP-binding cassette transporter associated with antigen processing

[84]

Endosomal acidification

Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase

[85]

Activation functions

Ion pumps to restore ion gradients

Na+ K+-ATPase

Ca2+-ATPase

[79]

Macromolecule synthesis

Protein synthesis

RNA/DNA synthesis

[79,80]

Effector functions

Perforin-based cytoxicity

Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase

[86]

Macrophage bacterial activity

Copper-transporting ATPase

[87]

Macrophage membrane permeabilization and inhibition of regulatory T cells

Activation of purinergic receptor P2X7 by extracellular ATPe

[88,89]


Data taken from [1].

Spies et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:216   doi:10.1186/ar3885