Table 1

Primer sequences used for real-time PCR

Sense primer

Antisense primer


Rat β-actin [GenBank:NM_031144.2]

5'-CTCTTCCAGCCTTCCTTCCT-3'

5'-TCATCGTACTCCTGCTTGCT-3'

Rat U6 [GenBank:K00784]

5'-CTCGCTTCGGCAGCACA-3'

5'-AACGCTTCACGAATTTGCGT-3'

Rat Smad4 [GenBank:NM_019275.2]

5'-CCACCAACTTCCCCAACATT-3'

5'-TGCAGTCCTACTTCCAGTCCAG-3'

Rat VEGF [GenBank:NM_031836.2]

5'-TTGAGACCCTGGTGGACATCT-3'

5'-CTCCTATGTGCTGGCTTTGG-3'


VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.

Li et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R75   doi:10.1186/ar3798

Open Data