Table 1

Baseline characteristics and atherosclerosis in Caucasian and black women with RA

Characteristic

Caucasian women

(n = 95)

Black women

(n = 108)

Pa


Sociodemographics

Age, years

57.5 (11.7)

55.4 (10.0)

...

Public healthcare (%)

18.9

97.2

...

Lifestyle factors

Pack year history smoking, n

2.4 (5.0)

0.1 (1.5)

0.003

Current smoking (%)

9.6

1.9

0.04

Never smoking (%)

90.7

58.5

0.01

Former smoking (%)

31.9

8.4

0.01

Alcohol use (%)

34.0

1.9

< 0.0001

Exercise, hours per weekb, n

0.7 (2.1)

0.6 (1.9)

0.04

Blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure, mmHg

128 (17)

140 (24)

0.5

Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg

78 (9)

85 (15)

0.1

Lipids

Total cholesterol, mmol/l

5.1 (1.0)

4.7 (0.9)

0.02

LDL cholesterol, mmol/l

2.8 (0.9)

2.6 (0.8)

0.5

HDL cholesterolb, mmol/l

1.7 (1.3)

1.5 (1.3)

0.002

Cholesterol├ĚHDL cholesterol

3.1 (1.0)

3.3 (1.1)

0.1

Triglyceridesb, mmol/l

1.1 (1.5)

1.1 (1.7)

0.8

Triglycerides├ĚHDL cholesterolb

0.6 (1.8)

0.7 (2.1)

0.1

Non-HDL cholesterol

3.3 (1.0)

3.2 (0.9)

0.5

Glucoseb, mmol/l

4.7 (1.2)

5.2 (1.4)

0.02

Diabetes mellitus (%)

4.2

16.7

0.3

RA characteristics

Disease duration, years

12.7 (9.1)

14.8 (9.4)

0.6

Rheumatoid factor positive (%)

73.4

75.9

0.8

DAS28

3.5 (1.5)

4.1 (1.3)

0.5

Deformed jointsb, n

4 (4)

7 (3)

0.05

Prednisone use ever (%)

43.2

42.6

0.08

Current prednisone use (%)

4.2

1.9

0.07

Current DMARD, n

2.1 (0.9)

2.5 (1.0)

0.4

Current methotrexate use (%)

77.9

91.7

0.9

Current chloroquine use (%)

47.4

77.8

0.2

Systemic inflammation

Erythrocyte sedimentation rateb, mm/hr

7 (3)

21 (3)

0.007

C-reactive proteinb, mg/l

3.9 (3.6)

7.5 (3.1)

0.5

Cardiovascular drugs

Antihypertensive agent use (%)

43.2

55.6

0.07

Oral glucose lowering agent use (%)

4.2

13.9

0.03

Insulin use (%)

1.1

2.0

0.6

Statin use (%)

36.8

18.5

0.03

Ezetimibe use (%)

2.1

0

...

Other

Education, years

12.7 (2.7)

7.5 (4.1)

0.002

Hypothyroidismc (%)

34.7

6.5

0.2

Hormone replacement therapy (%)

17.9

5.6

0.8

Atherosclerosis

cIMT, mm

0.689 (0.117)

0.691 (0.099)

0.6

Plaque (%)

36.8

35.2

0.5


Results are expressed as mean (SD) or proportions/percentages. aP for comparison between black and Caucasian women with RA after adjustment for age and healthcare as well as lipid lowering and antihypertensive agents in models that include lipid and blood pressure variables, respectively; bnon-normally distributed variable for which geometric mean (SD) is given; c includes subclinical and overt hypothyroidism and diagnosed when serum thyrotropin level was > 4.94 mU/L or when thyroid hormone replacement therapy was used. cIMT, common carotid artery intima-thickness; DAS28, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints; DMARD, disease modifying agents for rheumatic disease; n, number of; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.

Solomon et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R67   doi:10.1186/ar3784

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