Table 3

Age-adjusted Cox regression analysis

OM

n = 42

CVM n = 20

N-VM

n = 18


P-value

HR

(95% CI)

P-value

HR

(95% CI)

P-value

HR

(95% CI)

Age univariate

< 0.0001

1.1

(1.0-1.1)

< 0.0001

1.07

(1.04-1.1)

0.02

1,04

(1.00-1.1)

Age adjusted

Traditional risk factors


Smoking

0.02

3.3 (1.3-8.6)

Hypertension

0.02

2.2

(1.1-4.5)

0.04

2.8 (1.0-7.9)

Cholesterol, mmol/l

Triglycerides, mmol/l†

0.02

1.9

(1.1-3.3)

0.04

2.5 (1.1-5.7)

Established arterial disease

< 0.0001

4.7

(2.4-9.1)

0.0006

5.4

(2.1-13.6)

0.0006

6.3

(2.3-16.9)

Lupus manifestations


Nephritis

0.03

3.0 (1.2-7.9)

Neurological disorder

0.04

2.9 (1.1-7.3)

Epilepsy

0.03

2.3

(1.1-4.5)

0.01

3.7 (1.4-9.3)

SLICC > 1 [25]

<0.0001

6.3

(2.2-26.5)

0.04

3.7

(1.0-23.5)

0.002

9.6

(1.9-181.1)

SLAM > 6 [24]

0.02

2.1

(1.1-4.5)

Autoantibodies against


Double-stranded DNA

0.05

1.9

(1.0-3.6)

0.02

3.1 (1.2-8.3)

Cardiolipin IgG low titer

0.03

2.9 (1.1-8.1)

Cardiolipin IgG medium titer

0.006

2.7

(1.4-5.3)

0.04

3.2 (1.1-8.5)

0.02

3.6 (1.3-9.6)

beta2glykoprotein-1

0.04

2.9 (1.0-7.8)

Any aPL medium titer ¶

0.02

2.1

(1.1-3.9)

0.03

2.8 (1.1-7.7)

0.03

2.8 (1.1-7.6)

Sjogrens syndrome A

0.01

0.4

(0.2-0.8)

Sjogrens syndrome B

0.04

0.4

(0.1-0.9)

0.003

5 × 10-7

(0-0.4)

Medications


Warfarin

0.004

2.9

(1.4-5.7)

0.01

4.1

(1.4-11.1)

0.03

3.3 (1.1-8.3)

Hyperlipidemia

0.03

7.8

(1.2-27.9)

Inflammatory markers


High sensitivity CRP, mg/l†

0.01

1.3

(1.0-1.7)

0.02

1.5

(1.1-2.1)

Fibrinogen, g/l†

0.0002

9.5 (3.0-31)

0.02

10.2

(1.6-70)

0.0005

19.9 (3.8-110)

α-1 antitrypsin, g/l

0.002

3.1

(1.5-5.8)

0.001

5.1

(2.0-12.0)

Serum amyloid A, mg/l†

0.01

1.4

(1.1-1.8)

0.03

1.5 (1.0-2.1)

Endothelial markers

Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, ng/l†

0.0005

4.0

(1.8-8.2)

0.004

4.9

(1.7-13.5)

Von Willebrand factor, %†

0.009

1.9

(1.2-3.0)

Markers of renal damage


Cystatin C GFR

< 0.0001

0.4

(0.2-0.5)

0.001

0.3 (0.2-0.6)

0.0002

0.3 (0.2-0.5)

Cystatin C†

< 0.0001

4.4

(2.4-7.9)

0.0009

5.3 (2.0-13)

0.0002

5.7

(2.4-12.8)

Creatinine

0.003

1.1

(1.0-1.1)

0.02

4.1

(1.3-10.2)

0.003

4.3 (1.7-9.2)

Urea, mmol/l†

0.01

2.1 (1.2-3.2)

0.02

2.3 (1.1-4.0)

Pathologic urine

0.04

2.2 (1.0-4.4)

0.04

3.5 (1.1-8.1)


Only variables with P-values ≤ 0.05 in either group are presented. Calculations were done using age-adjusted Cox regression. †Calculations on log transformed values. Any aPL¶, any antiphospholipid antibody, positive antibody against cardiolipin IgG/IgM at medium titer, beta2glykoprotein-1 or a positive lupus anticoagulant test. Hypertension, systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and/or treatment for hypertension; hypercholesterolemia, total cholesterol level > 5.2 mmol/L; established arterial disease, history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, ischemic peripheral arterial disease at baseline; SCORE, systematic coronary risk evaluation calculated on 124 patients 40 to 65 years old; SLICC, systemic lupus international collaborating clinics; pathologic urine, as defined by the systemic lupus activity measure (SLAM); OM, overall mortality; CVM, cardiovascular mortality; N-VM, non-vascular mortality. HR, hazard ratio

Gustafsson et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R46   doi:10.1186/ar3759

Open Data