Table 2

Baseline characteristics of patients with SLE (n = 208)

All patients n = 208

Deceased patients

n = 42

Surviving patients n = 166

P


Traditional risk factors

Age

47 (35-54)

57 (48-65)

45 (31-52)

< 0.0001

Male gender

11%

14%

10%

Smoking

24%

26%

22%

Hypertension

34%

62%

28%

< 0.0001

Systolic blood pressure, mmHg

125 (115-140)

140 (123-148)

120 (110-140)

0.001

Hypercholesterolemia

44%

55%

41%

Total cholesterol, (mmol/l)

5.1 (4.3-6.0)

5.6 (4.7-6.7)

5.0 (4.3-5.9)

0.04

Low density lipoprotein mmol/l

2.9 (2.3-3.6)

3.3 (2.2-3.9)

2.8 (2.3-3.6)

High density lipoprotein, mmol/l

1.4 (1.1-1.7)

1.4 (1.1-1.9)

1.4 (1.1-1.7)

Triglycerides, mmol/l*

1.3 (1.0-2.0)

1.7 (1.2-2.5)

1.2 (0.9-1.9)

0.004

ApolipoproteinB/ApolipoproteinA*#

0.5 (0.3-0.6)

0.5 (0.3-0.8)

0.5 (0.3-0.6)

Diabetes

3%

10%

2%

0.03

Established arterial disease

13%

40%

5%

<0.0001

SCORE

3.2% (± 2.8)

4.4% (± 2.4)

2.7% (± 2.4)

0.005

Lupus manifestations (ever present)§

Age at disease onset, years

30 (22-40)

35 (25-52)

28 (21-40)

0.0002

Disease duration, years

12 (5-20)

13.5 (6-26)

12 (5-19)

0.008

Malar rash

56%

50%

58%

Discoid rash

20%

12%

21%

Photosensitivity

71%

60%

73%

Oral ulcers

28%

28%

26%

Arthritis

86%

86%

86%

Pleuritis

40%

52%

37%

Pericarditis

18%

17%

19%

Nephritis

35%

40%

34%

Neurological disorder

15%

29%

12%

0.009

Leucopenia

51%

37%

55%

0.04

Thrombocytopenia

22%

30%

20%

Previous venous occlusion

11%

17%

9%

SLICC > 1 [25]

59%

93%

50%

< 0.0001

SLAM > 6 [24]

59%

73%

55%

0.03

Autoantibodies against

(at baseline if not stated otherwise)

Double-stranded DNA

38%

43%

36%

Double-stranded DNA (ever)

61%

64%

60%

Cardiolipin IgG low titer

48%

50%

47%

Cardiolipin IgG medium titer

18%

31%

15%

0.02

Cardiolipin IgM low titer

16%

19%

15%

Cardiolipin IgM medium titer

8%

14%

6%

beta2glykoprotein-1#

22%

31%

20%

Lupus anticoagulant

23%

31%

21%

Any antiphospholipid low titer¶

60%

62%

60%

Any antiphospholipid medium titer¶

39%

55%

36%

0.03

Sjogrens syndrome A

41%

21%

46%

0.003

Sjogrens syndrome B

22%

10%

25%

Smith

10%

7%

10%

Ribonucleoprotein

19%

21%

19%

Medication

Steroids

51%

48%

62%

Cyclofosfamid (ever use)

17%

26%

16%

Azathioprine

12%

12%

12%

Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine

27%

14%

30%

0.04

Warfarin

13%

29%

10%

0.001

Acetylsalicylic acid

21%

33%

18%

0.02

Statins

2%

5%

1%

0.05

Methotrexate

4%

7%

1%

Cyclosporine

3%

10%

1%

0.004

Inflammatory markers

High sensitivity C reactive protein, mg/l* #

2.2 (0.8-6.2)

5.1 (2.2-12.1)

1.8 (0.7-4.5)

0.0002

Fibrinogen, g/l* #

3.7 (2.9-4.6)

4.3 (3.5-5.2)

3.4 (2.9-4.4)

< 0.0001

α-1 antitrypsine, g/l #

1.5 (1.3-1.8)

1.7 (1.5-2.1)

1.5 (1.3-1.7)

0.0001

Serum amyloid A, mg/l* #

5.4 (2.7-12)

10.5 (5.9-21.6)

4.7 (2.4-9.6)

Interleukin-6, ng/l* #

3.5 (2.1-7.0)

5.2 (2.9-9.7)

3.1 (2.0-6.2)

Complement factor 3, g/l #

1.0 ( 0.8-1.2)

1.0 (0.7-1.3)

1.0 (0.8-1.2)

Complement factor 3 degradation products, mg/l* #

11.9 (9.6-14.9)

13.4 (10.8-16.6)

11.6 (9.5-14.5)

0.02

Complement factor 4 (g/l)* #

0.2 (0.1-0.2)

0.2 (0.1-0.2)

0.2 (0.1-0.2)

Endothelial markers

Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, ng/l* #

315 (258-392)

377 (297-526)

306 (250-375)

< 0.0001

Von Willebrand factor, %*#

120 (63-175)

144 (102-231)

116 (60-164)

0.003

Markers of renal damage

Creatinine

82 (73-95)

91 (75-138)

81 (73-92)

< 0.0001

Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, ml/min/1.73m2

66.6 (54.3-79.1)

54.6 (36.6-76.9)

67.7 (59.5-79.9)

0.0005

Cystatin C GFR

80 (61-107)

55 (27-83)

86 (71-114)

< 0.0001

Cystatin C, mg/l*

1.0 (0.8-1.2)

1.3 (1.0-2.2)

0.9 (0.8-1.1)

< 0.0001

Blod urea nitrogen, mmol/l* #

5.8 (4.7-7.3)

7.3 (6.1-13.6)

5.5 (4.5-6.7)

Pathologic urine

24%

22%

29%

Other biomarkers

Homocysteine, mol/l* #

12.5 (10.1-16.5)

14.3 (10.8-20.6)

12 (10.0-15.3)

0.002


Distributions are given as % or median (interquartile range), except for SCORE, where mean values are given. P-values ≤ 0.05 are presented. *Variables with non-normal distribution. # Analysis of frozen samples. §According to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria [23]. ¶Positive antibody against cardiolipin IgG/IgM at low and medium titer, respectively, beta2glykoprotein-1, or a positive lupus anticoagulant test. Hypertension, systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and/or treatment for hypertension; hypercholesterolemia, total cholesterol level > 5.2 mmol/L; established arterial disease, history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, ischemic peripheral arterial disease at baseline; SCORE, systematic coronary risk evaluation calculated on 124 patients 40 to 65 years old; SLICC, systemic lupus international collaborating clinics; pathologic urine, as defined by the systemic lupus activity measure (SLAM). Data were missing as follows (deceased/survivors): low and high density lipoprotein (5/11), triglycerides (0/1), Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A (1/0), leucopenia (1/0), thrombocytopenia (1/3), cyclophosphamide ever (15/3), statins (0/3), cyklosporin (0/1), α-1 antitrypsine (0/1), serum amyloid (1/4), complement factor (C)3 (0/3), C3 degradation products (0/3), C 4 (0/3), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (1/2), von Willebrand factor (1/2), cystatin C/cystatin C glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (1/0), urea (3/3), homocysteine (2/5).

Gustafsson et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R46   doi:10.1186/ar3759

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