Differential regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Notch2/Delta-like 1 and Notch1/Jagged1 axes
1 Department of Immunology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan
2 Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan
3 Probiotics Research Laboratory, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan
4 Department of Immunology, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Japan
5 Department of Clinical and Experimental Hematology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-8575, Japan
Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R45 doi:10.1186/ar3758Published: 5 March 2012
Osteoclastogenesis plays an important role in the bone erosion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, Notch receptors have been implicated in the development of osteoclasts. However, the responsible Notch ligands have not been identified yet. This study was undertaken to determine the role of individual Notch receptors and ligands in osteoclastogenesis.
Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages or human peripheral blood monocytes were used as osteoclast precursors and cultured with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to induce osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. K/BxN serum-induced arthritic mice and ovariectomized mice were treated with anti-mouse Delta-like 1 (Dll1) blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb).
Blockade of a Notch ligand Dll1 with mAb inhibited osteoclastogenesis and, conversely, immobilized Dll1-Fc fusion protein enhanced it in both mice and humans. In contrast, blockade of a Notch ligand Jagged1 enhanced osteoclastogenesis and immobilized Jagged1-Fc suppressed it. Enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by agonistic anti-Notch2 mAb suggested that Dll1 promoted osteoclastogenesis via Notch2, while suppression by agonistic anti-Notch1 mAb suggested that Jagged1 suppressed osteoclastogenesis via Notch1. Inhibition of Notch signaling by a gamma-secretase inhibitor suppressed osteoclastogenesis, implying that Notch2/Dll1-mediated enhancement was dominant. Actually, blockade of Dll1 ameliorated arthritis induced by K/BxN serum transfer, reduced the number of osteoclasts in the affected joints and suppressed ovariectomy-induced bone loss.
The differential regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Notch2/Dll1 and Notch1/Jagged1 axes may be a novel target for amelioration of bone erosion in RA patients.