HMGB1 was significantly elevated in serum of lupus nephritis patients compared with healthy controls. Serum levels of HMGB1 (expressed as nanograms per milliliter) at baseline and follow-up in lupus nephritis patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 48). Data are expressed as medians, boxes show 25th to 75th percentiles, and median values are marked inside the boxes. HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1 protein; ns, not significant.
Zickert et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R36 doi:10.1186/ar3747