Figure 2.

Lack of B cell-derived IL-10 results in increased Th17 and Th1 responses. A. A total of 35 days after CIA induction, draining lymph node cells were excised and cultured with PMA plus ionomycin in the presence of Brefeldin A for five hours. The intracellular levels of IFNγ and IL-17 were measured. Dot plots are gated on the CD4+ population. B. Numbers indicate percentages or absolute numbers of cells in the quadrants. Data show mean ± SEM (n = 4), representative of four experiments. Data were compared by statistical analysis using the unpaired t test. *** P < 0.001. C. Supernatant was collected from lymph node cells stimulated in vitro for 48 hours with anti-CD3, and then secreted IFNγ and IL-17 was measured by cytokine FlowCytomix kit. Data show mean ± SEM (n = 4), representative of four experiments. Data were compared by statistical analysis using the unpaired t test. ** P < 0.01. D. Additionally, a BD in vivo cytokine capture assay was used to assess in vivo levels of IFNγ over a 12-hour period. The mean levels of IFNγ-conjugated to antibody in serum are shown ± SEM (n = 5), representative of two separate experiments. Data were compared by statistical analysis using the unpaired t test. * P < 0.05.

Carter et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R32   doi:10.1186/ar3736
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