Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Arthritis Research & Therapy and BioMed Central.

Open Access Research article

Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT/visfatin) inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling and proteoglycan synthesis in human articular chondrocytes

Raghunatha R Yammani* and Richard F Loeser

Author Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA

For all author emails, please log on.

Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R23  doi:10.1186/ar3705

Published: 30 January 2012

Abstract

Introduction

Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the mechanical factors appear to be critical, recent studies have suggested a role for adipokines in cartilage degradation. Chondrocytes from osteoarthritic cartilage respond poorly to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and the molecular mechanism(s) involved is not clearly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT/visfatin), a newly described adipokine, in regulating IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

Methods

Human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal ankle cartilage were pretreated with eNAMPT (0.1 to 5.0 μg/ml) overnight followed by stimulation with IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) for 24 hours, and proteoglycan synthesis was measured by [35S]sulfate incorporation. Chondrocytes were pretreated with eNAMPT overnight followed by IGF-1 for 10 minutes, and the cell lysates were immunoblotted for various signaling proteins that are activated by IGF-1 using phosphospecific antibodies. In addition, chondrocytes were pretreated with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor (U0126) prior to stimulation with eNAMPT and IGF-1.

Results

Pretreatment of chondrocytes with eNAMPT inhibited IGF-1-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of chondrocytes with eNAMPT inhibited IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1 and AKT. Interestingly, pretreatment of chondrocytes with eNAMPT did not inhibit IGF-1-mediated phosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor; however, it stimulated a sustained phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Inhibition of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway restored IGF-1-mediated insulin receptor substrate-1 and AKT phosphorylation.

Conclusions

Our study demonstrates that eNAMPT/visfatin inhibits IGF-1 function in articular chondrocytes by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway independent of the IGF-1 receptor. Since eNAMPT levels are elevated in the synovial fluid of OA patients, the signaling pathway activated by eNAMPT could contribute to IGF-1 resistance in OA.