Relationships between cytokines. The cascade and network of cellular responses mediated by TNF common to inflammatory arthritides: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD) and psoriasis (Ps). Chond, chondrocyte; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; CRP, C-reactive protein; DC, dendritic cell; EC, endothelial cell; E-sel, E-selectin; GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; Hep, hepatoxyte; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IL, interleukin; INOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; Mac, macrophage; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NO, nitric oxide; OC, osteoclast; OPG, osteoprotegerin; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; RANKL, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand; RANTES, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted; ROI, reactive oxygen intermediates; SOD, superoxide dismutase; Treg supp, suppression of T regulatory cells; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. Reproduced with permission from .
Tak and Kalden Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13(Suppl 1):S5 doi:10.1186/1478-6354-13-S1-S5