Table 2

Analyses of covariance (modified intention-to-treat analysis by last observation carried forward method) for mean scores on primary and secondary outcome measures by group at baseline, posttreatment and six-month follow-up

Outcome measures

Mean

CBT

(± SD)

Mean

RPT

(± SD)

Mean

TAU

(± SD)

F-value

P-value

ηp2

Pairwise

comparisons

Cohen's d

CBT vs RPT

Cohen's d

CBT vs TAU

Cohen's d

RPT vs TAU


PCS total score (0 to 52)

Baseline

34.13 (9.29)

32.19 (7.05)

31.23 (7.18)

Posttreatment

24.79 (7.41)

31.36 (7.10)

31.47 (6.90)

133.34

0.001

0.63

1 < 2, 3

0.91

0.93

0.02

Six-month follow-up

25.50 (7.24)

30.64 (6.75)

32.74 (7.04)

144.33

0.001

0.65

1 < 2 < 3

0.73

1.01

0.30

PCS-Rumination (0 to 16)

Baseline

11.87 (3.08)

11.08 (2.57)

10.92 (2.77)

Posttreatment

8.82 (2.47)

10.68 (2.53)

11.09 (2.60)

100.82

0.001

0.56

1 < 2, 3

0.74

0.90

0.16

Six-month

follow-up

9.02 (2.46)

10.28 (2.50)

11.34 (2.61)

87.82

0.001

0.53

1 < 2 < 3

0.51

0.91

0.42

PCS-Magnification

(0 to 12)

Baseline

6.38 (2.63)

6.23 (2.40)

5.92 (2.22)

Posttreatment

5.18 (2.27)

6.15 (2.48)

6.19 (2.23)

33.08

0.001

0.30

1 < 2, 3

0.41

0.45

0.02

Six-month

follow-up

5.59 (2.32)

6.34 (2.42)

6.62 (2.27)

23.65

0.001

0.23

1 < 2 < 3

0.32

0.45

0.12

PCS-Helplessness

(0 to 24)

Baseline

15.89 (5.07)

14.89 (3.98)

14.57 (4.13)

Posttreatment

10.79 (4.04)

14.55 (3.98)

14.36 (3.99)

74.29

0.001

0.49

1 < 2, 3

0.94

0.90

0.05

Six-month

follow-up

10.95 (4.01)

14.02 (3.85)

14.94 (4.27)

68.04

0.001

0.46

1 < 2 < 3

0.78

0.96

0.23

CPAQ (0 to 120)

Baseline

49.00 (10.33)

44.40 (8.90)

44.45 (10.80)

Posttreatment

51.30 (9.53)

43.36 (9.00)

43.15 (10.86)

33.07

0.001

0.29

1 > 2, 3

0.86

0.80

0.02

Six-month

follow-up

50.46 (9.37)

43.47 (8.85)

42.53 (10.40)

24.97

0.001

0.24

1 > 2, 3

0.77

0.80

0.10

HAM-D (0 to 50)

Baseline

14.47 (3.93)

14.94 (4.03)

14.09 (4.64)

Posttreatment

7.78 (2.46)

7.98 (1.80)

8.17 (2.25)

2.17

0.12

0.03

ns

0.09

0.17

0.09

Six-month

follow-up

7.91 (2.50)

8.19 (1.96)

8.57 (2.47)

4.05

0.02

0.05

1 < 3

0.12

0.27

0.17

HARS (0 to 56)

Baseline

10.84 (4.27)

11.22 (3.75)

9.50 (2.98)

Posttreatment

7.09 (2.96)

7.11 (2.39)

7.40 (2.18)

9.71

0.001

0.11

1, 2 < 3

0.01

0.12

0.13

Six-month

follow-up

7.25 (3.02)

7.39 (2.57)

7.58 (2.07)

8.49

0.001

0.10

1, 2 < 3

0.05

0.13

0.08

PVAS (0 to 100)

Baseline

64.20 (10.78)

68.13 (9.84)

64.72 (10.44)

Posttreatment

36.88 (8.29)

37.14 (10.53)

38.68 (7.48)

2.25

0.109

0.03

ns

0.03

0.23

0.17

Six-month

follow-up

40.68 (10.93)

40.54 (9.61)

44.34 (8.56)

7.48

0.001

0.09

2 < 3

0.01

0.37

0.42

FIQ (0 to 100)

Baseline

65.91 (10.85)

66.36 (9.88)

64.48 (10.50)

Posttreatment

46.21 (9.18)

50.93 (9.38)

48.64 (6.77)

6.96

0.001

0.08

1 < 2, 3

0.51

0.30

0.28

Six-month

follow-up

48.80 (9.11)

52.84 (9.17)

53.26 (7.54)

11.22

0.001

0.12

1 < 2, 3

0.44

0.53

0.05

EuroQol VAS (0 to 100)

Baseline

44.55 (16.47)

46.82 (15.62)

43.87 (14.50)

Posttreatment

60.45 (16.63)

58.00 (13.07)

53.49 (14.40)

11.49

0.001

0.13

1 > 2, 3

0.16

0.45

0.33

Six-month

follow-up

58.39 (16.27)

56.73 (13.85)

52.26 (14.03)

10.44

0.001

0.12

1 > 2, 3

0.11

0.40

0.32


CBT = cognitive-behaviour therapy; CPAQ = Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire; EuroQol VAS = EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; FIQ = Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; HAM-D = Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HARS = Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; PCS = Pain Catastrophizing Scale; PVAS = Pain Visual Analogue Scale; RPT = recommended pharmacological treatment; TAU = treatment as usual. ns = nonsignificant difference between groups (P > 0.05).

Alda et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:R173   doi:10.1186/ar3496

Open Data