Table 5

Proportional hazards models for coronary events using various measures of systolic blood pressure

Time-constant models

Time-dependent models

First available ("remote") SBP

Average of

first two SBP

Most recent SBP

Mean SBP

Time-adjusted

mean SBP

AUC SBP


HR

(95% CI)

P

HR

(95% CI)

P

HR

(95% CI)

P

HR

(95% CI)

P

HR

(95% CI)

P

HR

(95%)I)

p

Systolic blood pressure (SBP)

1.00

(0.99, 1.02)

0.45

1.31

(0.68, 2.53)

0.42

1.01

(1.00, 1.02)

0.052

1.025

(1.01, 1.04)

0.004

1.024

(1.01, 1.04)

0.004

1.00

(1.00, 1.00)

0.19

Male sex

2.01

(1.13, 3.59)

0.02

2.04

(1.14, 3.65)

0.02

1.87

(1.03, 3.39)

0.04

1.75

(0.96, 3.21)

0.07

1.74

(0.95, 3.18)

0.07

1.83

(1.00, 3.33)

0.049

Ageψ

1.05

(1.03, 1.07)

< 0.0001

1.05

(1.03, 1.07)

< 0.0001

1.06

(1.03, 1.07)

< 0.0001

1.04

(1.02, 1.07)

< 0.0001

1.04

(1.02, 1.07)

< 0.0001

1.06

(1.04, 1.08)

< 0.0001

SLEDAI-2K

1.03

(1.01, 1.06)

0.01

1.03

(1.01, 1.06)

0.01

1.09

(1.05, 1.13)

< 0.0001

1.09

(1.05, 1.13)

< 0.0001

1.09

(1.05, 1.13)

< 0.0001

1.09

(1.05, 1.13)

< 0.0001

Elevated cholesterolζ

1.41

(0.67, 2.98)

0.37

1.39

(0.66, 2.95)

0.39

1.72

(1.06, 2.78)

0.03

1.68

(1.04, 2.71)

0.03

1.69

(1.04, 2.73)

0.03

1.82

(1.13, 2.92)

0.01

Corticosteroidsβ

2.73

(1.13, 6.61)

0.03

2.74

(1.13, 6.62)

0.03

1.74

(0.99, 3.08)

0.06

1.72

(0.98, 3.03)

0.06

1.72

(0.97, 3.03)

0.06

1.77

(1.00, 3.12)

0.049

Antimalarials§

0.59

(0.37, 0.93)

0.02

0.59

(0.37, 0.95)

0.03

0.95

(0.60, 1.52)

0.84

0.97

(0.61, 1.56)

0.91

0.97

(0.61, 1.55)

0.89

0.93

(0.58, 1.48)

0.75

Immunosuppressives¥

0.91

(0.58, 1.43)

0.68

0.89

(0.56, 1.41)

0.63

1.51

(0.93, 2.45)

0.10

1.48

(0.91, 2.40)

0.11

1.48

(0.91, 2.40)

0.11

1.46

(0.90, 2.36)

0.13


95% CI: 95% confidence interval; AUC: area under the curve; BP: blood pressure (mmHg); DBP: diastolic blood pressure (mmHg); HR: hazard ratio; NS: not significant; p: p value; SBP: systolic blood pressure (mmHg); TC: total plasma cholesterol (mmol/L).

ψYears; age at the time of first available TC (or SBP or DBP) in time-constant models and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. SLE Disease Activity Index 2000; scores range from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating more active disease; measured at the time of first available TC (or SBP or DBP) in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ¢Hypertension defined as Diastolic BP ≥ 90 or Systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg; defined as present ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. βCorticosteroids defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ζElevated total plasma cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia) defined as total plasma cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/L; measured at the time of first available SBP or DBP in time-constant models, and coincident with each SBP or DBP measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. §Antimalarials include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ¥Immunosuppressives include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide; defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models.

Nikpour et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:R156   doi:10.1186/ar3473

Open Data