Table 2

Univariate comparison of patients with and without CAD used in TC and BP models

BP models

TC models


CAD (n = 94)

No CAD (n = 897)

CAD (n = 86)

No CAD (n = 870)

n(%) or mean ± SD

n(%) or mean ± SD

P

n(%) or mean ± SD

n(%) or mean ± SD

P

Female

72 (83.7%)

777 (89.3%)

0.12

78 (83.0%)

801 (89.3%)

0.07

Menopausea at study start

32 (44.4%)

184 (23.7%)

0.0001

33 (42.3%)

189 (23.6%)

0.0003

Race

Caucasian

75 (87.2%)

574 (68.6%)

0.004

81 (86.2%)

593 (68.7%)

0.005

Black

3 (3.5%)

96 (11.5%)

4 (4.3%)

97 (11.2%)

Asian

4 (4.7%)

94 (11.2.%)

4 (4.3%)

97 (11.2%)

Other

4 (4.7%)

73 (8.7%)

5 (5.3%)

76 (8.8%)

Disease durationb

At first visit

4.08 ± 5.71

4.01 ± 5.87

0.92

4.24 ± 5.72

3.94 ± 5.80

0.63

At study start

6.99 ± 7.84

6.54 ± 8.17

0.62

5.95 ± 7.23

6.13 ± 8.00

0.83

SLEDAI-2Kc

At first visit

12.34 ± 8.67

9.49 ± 7.63

0.001

12.16 ± 8.63

9.60 ± 7.65

0.002

At study start

9.59 ± 7.99

8.28 ± 7.26

0.11

11.36 ± 8.86

9.02 ± 7.50

0.02

Disease manifestationsd

ever from diagnosis to first visit

Musculoskeletal

42 (44.7%)

365 (40.7%)

0.45

44 (51.2%)

363 (41.7%)

0.09

Cutaneous

69 (73.4%)

504 (56.2%)

0.001

65 (75.6%)

507 (58.3%)

0.002

Renal

46 (48.9%)

364 (40.6%)

0.12

47 (54.7%)

370 (42.5%)

0.03

Nervous system

32 (34.0%)

180 (20.1%)

0.002

32 (37.2%)

189 (21.7%)

0.001

Hematologic

13 (13.8%)

110 (12.3%)

0.66

14 (16.3%)

117 (13.5%)

0.47

Vasculitis

19 (20.2%)

126 (14.1%)

0.11

19 (22.1%)

133 (15.3%)

0.10

Immunologic

58 (61.7%)

640 (71.4%)

0.05

62 (72.1%)

637 (73.2%)

0.82

Serosal

13 (13.8%)

77 (8.6%)

0.09

11 (12.8%)

74 (8.5%)

0.18

Fever

16 (17.0%)

141 (15.7%)

0.74

18 (20.9%)

138 (15.9%)

0.23

Disease manifestationse ever during follow-up

Musculoskeletal

70 (74.5%)

508 (56.6%)

0.0008

67 (77.9%)

476 (54.7%)

< 0.0001

Cutaneous

82 (87.2%)

643 (71.7%)

0.001

73 (84.9%)

615 (70.7%)

0.005

Renal

72 (76.6%)

581 (64.8%)

0.02

62 (72.1%)

547 (62.9%)

0.09

Nervous system

58 (61.7%)

304 (33.9%)

< 0.0001

53 (61.6%)

284 (32.6%)

< 0.0001

Hematologic

25 (26.6%)

229 (25.5%)

0.82

22 (25.6%)

214 (24.6%)

0.84

Vasculitis

42 (44.7%)

207 (23.1%)

< 0.0001

36 (41.9%)

189 (21.7%)

< 0.0001

Immunologic

82 (87.2%)

769 (85.7%)

0.69

76 (88.4%)

741 (85.2%)

0.42

Serosal

22 (23.4%)

112 (12.5%)

0.003

19 (22.1%)

94 (10.8%)

0.002

Fever

42 (44.7%)

231 (25.8%)

< 0.0001

40 (46.5%)

200 (23.0%)

< 0.0001

Chronic renal insufficiency everf

5 (5.3%)

64 (7.1%)

0.51

4 (4.7%)

60 (6.9%)

0.43

Anti-phospholipid antibodiesg

Ever from first clinic visit to last visit

69 (75.8%)

546 (61.1%)

0.006

66 (76.7%)

527 (60.8%)

0.004

Ever in the study period

66 (72.5%)

491 (55.0%)

0.001

61 (70.9%)

459 (53.0%)

0.001

Corticosteroids

At study start

66 (76.7%)

559 (68.5%)

0.02

66 (70.2%)

557 (62.2%)

0.13

Ever during follow-up

81 (94.2%)

676 (77.7%)

0.0003

88 (93.6%)

706 (78.7%)

0.0006

Cumulative steroid dose (g)

From first clinic visit to last visit

42.3 ± 34.4

31.7 ± 34.7

0.006

43.5 ± 34.6

31.9 ± 35.1

0.005

In the study period

30.3 ± 25.8

20.5 ± 23.1

0.0002

28.8 ± 25.1

19.7 ± 21.9

0.0005

Antimalarialsg

At study start

29 (33.7%)

356 (41.1%)

0.18

31 (33.0%)

349 (39.0%)

0.25

Ever during follow-up

51 (59.3%)

622 (71.5%)

0.02

58 (61.7%)

639 (71.2%)

0.05

Immunosuppressivesh

At study start

16 (18.6%)

217 (25.1%)

0.18

14 (15.1%)

221 (24.8%)

0.04

Ever during follow-up

46 (53.5%)

454 (52.2%)

0.82

51 (54.3%)

471 (52.5%)

0.75

Hypertensioni

At study start

26 (31.0%)

123 (14.4%)

< 0.0001

26 (27.7%)

131 (14.6%)

0.001

Ever during follow-up

71 (82.6%)

380 (43.7%)

< 0.0001

77 (81.9%)

403 (44.9%)

< 0.0001

Hypercholesterolemiaj

At study start

26 (31.0%)

350 (40.2%)

< 0.0001

39 (65.0%)

305 (39.9%)

0.0001

Ever during follow-up

79 (91.9%)

597 (68.6%)

< 0.0001

81 (91.0%)

614 (69.1%)

< 0.0001

Diabetes mellitusk

At study start

5 (6.0%)

29 (3.4%)

0.22

4 (4.4%)

27 (3.1%)

0.52

Ever during follow-up

13 (15.1%)

58 (6.7%)

0.005

13 (13.8%)

61 (6.8%)

0.01

Smokerl

At study start

20 (23.8%)

162 (19.0%)

0.28

23 (25.0%)

166 (18.8%)

0.15

Ever during follow-up

27 (31.4%)

220 (25.4%)

0.22

30 (31.9%)

229 (25.6%)

0.18

Antihypertensivesm

Ever up to study start

14/37 (37.8%)

166/642 (25.9%)

0.11

16/39 (41.0%)

169/654 (25.8%)

0.04

Ever during follow-up

69/76 (90.8%)

355/487 (72.9%)

0.0008

71/83 (85.5%)

361/506 (71.3%)

0.007

Lipid-lowering medicationsn

Ever up to study start

1/10 (10.0%)

26/427 (6.1%)

0.48

1/11 (9.1%)

27/430 (6.3%)

0.52

Ever during follow-up

47/76 (61.8%)

144/543 (26.5%)

< 0.0001

48/70 (68.6%)

145/528 (27.5%)

< 0.0001

TC level at study starto

5.85 ± 1.62

5.19 ± 1.56

0.0002

Mean of first two TC levelso

5.91 ± 1.53

5.19 ± 1.49

< 0.0001

Mean of all TC levelso

5.72 ± 1.23

4.95 ± 1.11

< 0.0001

AM of all TC levelso

5.72 ± 1.23

4.94 ± 1.11

< 0.0001

AUC of all TC levelsp

15, 806 ± 13, 063

11, 117 ± 11, 976

0.0006

SBP at study starto

131.65 ± 21.29

123.11 ± 19.08

< 0.0001

Mean of first two SBPso

132.45 ± 19.00

123.03 ± 17.35

< 0.0001

Mean of all SBPso

134.90 ± 15.32

121.96 ± 14.81

< 0.0001

AM of all SBPso

134.68 ± 15.351

121.88 ± 14.99

< 0.0001

AUC of all SBPs∞p

400, 217 ± 318, 056

285, 335 ± 304, 573

0.0006

DBP at study starto

77.3 ± 12.3

80.8 ± 11.8

0.009

Mean of first two DBPso

77.2 ± 10.5

82.0 ± 10.5

< 0.0001

Mean of all DBPso

76.2 ± 8.5

82.7 ± 6.7

< 0.0001

AM of all DBPso

76.2 ± 8.6

82.6 ± 6.8

< 0.0001

AUC of all DBPsp

179, 476 ± 192, 071

245, 236 ± 194, 324

0.002


AM, time-adjusted mean; AUC, area-under-the-curve; CAD, coronary artery disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SLEDAI-2K, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; TC, total plasma cholesterol (mmol/L). aMenopause defined as a minimum of 12 months of amenorrhea irrespective of cause. bYears. cScores range from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating more-active disease. dDisease manifestations defined based on SLEDAI-2K definitions. eChronic renal insufficiency defined based on SLICC/ACR DI definition (glomerular filtration rate < 50%, proteinuria ≥3.5 g/24 h, or end-stage renal disease). fMeasured by using commercial assays, with test reported positive if either IgM or IgG antibody level exceeded manufacturer-recommended cut points. gAntimalarials include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. hImmunosuppressives include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, and cyclophosphamide. iHypertension was defined as DBP ≥90 or SBP ≥140 mm Hg or treatment with antihypertensive medication. jHypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 5.2 mmol/L or lipid-lowering therapy. kDiabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose > 7.0 mmol/L or diabetes therapy. lCurrent smoking is defined as smoking of an average of one or more cigarettes per day over the past month. mAll classes of antihypertensives including diuretics, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin type II receptor blockers. nHMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins). ommol/L. pmmol/L multiplied by months.

Nikpour et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:R156   doi:10.1186/ar3473

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