Engagement with fibronectin-, laminin-, or collagen-binding integrins leads to the production and secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Binding is indicated by the arrows. Cell type, ligand (for example, fibronectin or fibronectin-derived peptides), ligand occupation, and integrin expression level determine the cellular response. BAFF, B-lymphocyte activating factor; CCL2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; IFN-γ, interferon-gamma; IL, interleukin; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
Lowin and Straub Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:244 doi:10.1186/ar3464