Table 1

Aberrant miRNA expression in autoimmune rheumatic diseases

MicroRNA

Source

Target mRNA

Affected pathway and final effect

Reference


Systemic lupus erythematosus

Down-regulated miRNAs

miR-146a

PBMCs

TRAF6, IRAK1

Type I IFN overproduction

[48]

miR-125a

PBMCs

KLF13

RANTES (CCL5) overproduction

[49]

Up-regulated miRNAs

miR-21, miR-148a

PBMCs

RASGRP1, DNMT1

DNA methylation

[50]

miR-126

PBMCs

DNMT1

DNA methylation

[51]

Rheumatoid arthritis

Down-regulated miRNAs

miR-124a

Synoviocytes

CDK2, MCP-1

Synovial cell proliferation, leukocyte chemotaxis, and angiogenesis

[63]

Up-regulated miRNAs

miR-146a

PBMCs and fibroblasts from synovial tissue

TRAF6, IRAK1

NF-kB, leading to prolonged production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β

[3,55]

miR-155

Synovial tissue and fibroblast-like synoviocytes

-

MMP-3 and MMP-1 production, causing joint destruction

[56]

miR-203

Synovial fibroblasts

-

NF-kB, leading to increased production of MMP-1 and IL-6, and to the activated phenotype of synovial fibroblasts

[58]

miR-223

CD4+ naïve T cells

-

Unknown; possible role in RA pathogenesis?

[59]

miR-346

Fibroblast-like synoviocytes

IL-18 mRNA

LPS-induced Bruton's tyrosine kinase expression; turn-off IL-18 expression in response to LPS

[60]

Sjögren's syndrome

Down-regulated miRNAs

miR-17-92 cluster

Minor salivary glands

-

Accumulation of pro-B cells, marked reduction of pre-B and more mature B cells

[67]

Up-regulated miRNAs

miR-146a

PBMCs of SS patients; PBMCs, salivary and lacrimal glands of SS mouse model

TRAF6, IRAK1

NF-kB, causing increased phagocytic activity, suppressed inflammatory cytokine production

[69]

Scleroderma

Down-regulated miRNAs

miR-29

Skin fibroblasts and skin sections

COL3A1

PDGF-B and TGF-β, leading to increased production of type I and type III collagen

[71]

Polymyositis/dermatomyositis

miR-146b, miR-155, miR-214, miR-221, miR-222

Muscle specimens

-

NF-kB pathway (miR-146)

[73]


CDK2, cyclin-dependent kinase 2; DNMT1, DNA methyltransferase 1; IRAK1, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RANTES, Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted; RASGRP1, RAS guanyl-releasing protein 1; SS, Sjögren's syndrome; TGF, transforming growth factor; TRAF6, TNF receptor-associated factor 6.

Ceribelli et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:229   doi:10.1186/ar3377