Table 1

Renal functions and related clinical or laboratory parameters

Function

Clinical or laboratory parameter


Excretion

Serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid

Filtration barrier

Proteinuria as determined by dipstick test and/or by urinary protein/creatinine ratio, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio

Hematuria as determined by dipstick test and/or microscopy

Sodium balance

Blood pressure and edema to be evaluated by clinical examination

Water balance

Serum sodium concentration, serum osmolarity

Acid-base status

Serum bicarbonate (and chloride) concentration

Renal hormones

Erythropoietin: hemoglobin level 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D: serum calcium/phosphorus Concentrations, iPTH


iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.

Anders and Vielhauer Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:222   doi:10.1186/ar3256