Table 1

Spontaneous models of Sjögren's syndrome

Strain/modificationa

SS-like disease manifestationsb

Remarksb

Reference


(NZB/NZW)F1

SG and LG infl.

SLE-like disease

[19]

MRL

SG and LG infl.

SLE-like disease

[29]

lpr

↑ SG and LG infl.

lpr exacerbates the MRL disease phenotype

[30]

NFS/sld

None

Aberrant proteolysis of α-fodrin

[33]

3d-Tx

SG and LG infl.

Inflammatory lesions in multiple organs

[34]

IQI/Jic

SG and LG infl.

Inflammatory lesions in multiple organs

[37]

NOD

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG and LG function

T1D, multiple immune system-related alterations

[12]

H2b

Similar to original NOD strain

No T1D

[42]

C57BL/6

May develop SG infl. at an old age

Widely used recipient strain

NOD-Aec1Aec2

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG and LG function

Increased applicability compared with NOD mice

[41]

Il2-/-

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function

Generalized lymphoproliferative disease

[91]

Il2Rα-/-

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function

Generalized lymphoproliferative disease

[91]

Foxp3-/-

None

More susceptible to SS-like disease

[94]

Il10 Tg

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG and LG function

↑ apoptosis in the SG

[95]

Il14α Tg

SG infl., ↓ SG function

High incidence of CD5+ lymphoma, nephritis

[101]

Baff Tg

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function

MZ B-cell dominated infl., SLE-like disease

[106]

Tgfβ1-/-

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function

Poor viability, mixed inflammatory cell response

[112]

Tgfβ1 Tg

↓ SG function

Impaired SG architecture, SG tissue fibrosis

[113]

Thbs1-/-

LG infl., anti-Ro and anti-La

Detailed assessment of the eye component

[116]

Ar-/-

SG infl.

Estrogen-dependent disease

[119]

RbAp48 Tg

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function, anti-Ro and anti-La

Assessment of the inflammatory milieu in the SG

[122]

Id3-/-

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function, anti-Ro and anti-La

Exocrine gland dysfunction precedes SG and LG infl.

[125]

Id3-/-;LckCre

SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function, anti-Ro and anti-La

T-cell lineage specific deletion of Id3

[126]

r1ΔT/r2n

SG and LG infl., anti-Ro

↓ Tregs, inflammatory lesions in multiple organs

[130]

IκBαM/M

SG and LG infl., anti-Ro and anti-La

Defective feedback regulation of NF-κB

[133]

C57BL/10

May develop SG infl. at an old age

C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 diverged prior to 1937

NOD-Nss1/Idd5

SG infl.

SG function has not been assessed

[82]

SJL

SG and LG infl., anti-Ro and anti-La

Susceptible to multiple autoimmune diseases

[98]

Il12 Tg

↑ SG and LG infl., ↓ SG function, ↑ anti-Ro and anti-La

IL-12 exacerbates the SJL disease phenotype

[98]

BALB/c

None

Often used as control strain

Act1-/-

SG and LG infl., anti-Ro and anti-La

MZ B-cell dominated infl., SLE-like disease

[115]


Selection of murine strains in which Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-like disease manifestations develop spontaneously. ↑, increased; ↓, decreased; Ar, aromatase; 3d-Tz, 3 days after birth thymectomy; infl., inflammation; LG, lacrimal gland; MZ, marginal zone; NOD, nonobese diabetic mice; SG, salivary gland; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; T1D, type 1 diabetes; Tg, transgenic; Treg, regulatory T cell. aSpecific modification of the original strain. bFor modified strains, listings refer to relative changes compared with the original, not indented, strain listed above.

Delaleu et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:217   doi:10.1186/ar3313