Bone marrow-derived mensenchymal stem cell triple differentiation potentials from ankylosing spondylitis patients and healthy donors. (A), (B), (C) Morphological characteristics of bone marrow-derived mensenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation evaluated by the inverted phase contrast microscope; ankylosing spondylitis (AS)-BMSCs have the same morphological properties as the HLA-B27-negative healthy donor (HD1)-BMSCs and HLA-B27-positive healthy donor (HD2)-BMSCs. Osteocytes were stained for calcium deposition using Alizarin Red-S (A1, B1, C1: x400) and for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with the Cell Alkaline Phosphatase-S assay (A2, B2, C2: x200). Adipocytes were filled with many fat vacuoles, and Red Oil O was used to stain the fat vacuoles of adipocytes (A3, B3, C3: x200). Chondroblast differentiation from BMSCs was identified with Alcian blue staining (A4, B4, C4: x200). (D) General photographs of BMSCs for osteogenic differentiation, stained with Alizarin Red-S. (E) ALP activities of AS-BMSCs, HD1-BMSCs and HD2-BMSCs were 644 ± 45, 655 ± 49 and 646 ± 51, respectively; differences not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Data presented as mean ± standard deviation. MLR, mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cell reaction; PHA, phytohemagglutinin.
Wu et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:R29 doi:10.1186/ar3257