Figure 6.

The effects and mechanisms of resveratrol in AGEs-mediated damage of cartilage. AGEs stimulation activated both NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. The activation of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling leads to the generation of iNOS, COX-2 and MMP-13 that cause the degradation of proteoglycan, aggrecan and collagen II, three major components of cartilage matrix, through direct and indirect mechanisms. Along the activation of these critical pathways by AGEs, many associated events were blocked by the treatment of resveratrol as indicated.

Liu et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R167   doi:10.1186/ar3127
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