Table 3

Biomechanical, neurobehavioral, and inflammatory changes with diet-induced obesity

Bivariate (r)

Multivariate (β, r2)



Parameter

Diet

Percentage body fat

Knee OA

Diet (β)

Percentage body fat (β)

Knee OA (β)

Whole model (r2)


Biomechanical

Dark phase locomotion (m)

0.25

0.26

0.14

-

-

-

0.05

Velocity (cm/s)

-0.42*

-0.40

0.01

1.02

-0.11

0.14

0.21

Prompted velocity (cm/s)

-0.26

-0.19

0.09

-

-

-

0.09

Stride frequency (Hz)

-0.34

-0.37

0.08

-

-

-

0.22

Prompted stride frequency (Hz)

-0.31

-0.29

0.03

-

-

-

0.11

Rotarod latency to fall (s)

-0.71***

-0.83***

-0.33

-18.7

-10.1**

0.55

0.70***a

Forelimb grip strength (g)

-0.70***

-0.54*

-0.16

15.6**

0.73

-0.15

0.50**a

Hind limb grip strength (g)

-0.45*

-0.46*

-0.26

-

-

-

0.21

Neurobehavioral

Hotplate withdrawal latency (s)

-0.63**

-0.55**

-0.31

2.24

0.076

-0.106

0.43*

Tail-flick withdrawal latency (s)

-0.02

-0.01

-0.13

-

-

-

0.02

Time in open areas (%total)b

-0.47*

-0.46**

0.01

2.56

-0.18

0.18

0.43*

Time freezing (%total)b

0.46*

0.32

0.33

-14.06*

-1.16

0.95

0.35*

Stretch attendsb

-0.66***

-0.60**

-0.20

4.85

-0.03

-0.03

0.51**a

Open-closed transitionsb

-0.18

-0.17

0.32

-

-

-

0.23

Time immobilec (s)

-0.56**

-0.44

-0.30

63.1*

4.0

-3.34

0.37

Inflammatory

IL-1α

-0.08

-0.09

-0.49*

18.8

3.0

-8.2*

0.27

IL-1 receptor antagonist

-0.05

-0.07

-0.18

-

-

-

0.03

IL-12

0.18

0.17

0.19

-

-

-

0.06

Keratinocyte-derived cytokine

0.17

0.17

-0.21

-

-

-

0.12

IFNγ-induced protein

0.10

-0.01

0.06

-

-

-

0.08

MIP-1α

0.24

0.39

0.17

-

-

-

0.22

Leptin

0.84***

0.95***

0.53**

-1.9

2.9***

1.1*

0.93***a

Adiponectin

-0.19

-0.02

-0.40

2694*

324*

-274**

0.42*


Inflammatory concentrations were measured in serum, and time points for comparisons are described in the text. MIP-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1; OA, osteoarthritis. aP < 0.05 controlling for 5% false discovery rate correction of multivariate whole-model analyses. bZero-maze behavioral test. cTail suspension test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 using bivariate and multivariate generalized linear modeling. P values less than 0.05 shown in bold.

Griffin et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R130   doi:10.1186/ar3068

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