Table 2

Characteristic histopathologic patterns and radiologic findings in the interstitium of IPF and connective tissue-associated ILD

Disease association

Characteristic histopathologic pattern

Characteristic radiographic findings on HRCT


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Usual interstitial pneumonia

Peripheral and bibasilar reticulonodular opacities with honeycombing

Systemic sclerosis

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

Increased reticular markings, ground glass opacification, basilar prominence

Usual interstitial pneumonia

Peripheral and bibasilar reticulonodular opacities with honeycombing

Rheumatoid arthritis

Usual interstitial pneumonia

Reticular changes and honeycombing

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

Ground-glass opacities with basilar prominence

Polymyositis/dermatomyositis

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

As above

Usual interstitial pneumonia

As above

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Patchy airspace consolidation, ground glass opacities

Diffuse alveolar damage

Diffuse ground glass opacities

Sjögren's syndrome

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

As above

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

Thin walled cysts, ground glass opacities, centrilobular nodules

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Acute interstitial pneumonia

Ground glass opacities

Mixed connective tissue disease

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

Septal thickening and ground glass opacities


HRCT, high-resolution computed tomography; ILD, interstitial lung disease; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Castelino and Varga Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:213   doi:10.1186/ar3097