Unaffected lipid profiles with modified plasma antigen levels and monocyte chemotactic activity in representative mice. Luminex-based bead array was performed for plasma chemokines and cytokines, including: (a) IL-10 (interleukin-10; also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, CSIF), a cytokine secreted in response to tissue damage, presented lower levels in L-4F-treated mice--consistent with increased tissue damage in control mice. (b) Plasma levels of CCL9 (also known as MIP-1γ), a chemoattractant that contributes to monocyte infiltration in renal disease, were significantly less in mice treated with L-4F. (c) Indicators of atherosclerosis severity: CCL19 (also known as MIP-3-β) and VCAM-1. CCL19 recruits T-cells and dendritic cells to target organs and promotes inflammatory responses and was significantly decreased in mice treated with L-4F or combination treatment. Similar trends were seen with VCAM-1, an endothelial adhesion molecule involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression of glomerulonephritis. After Bonferoni correction, P-values less than 0.0009 for plasma markers were considered significant. (d) Plasma lipid levels, including total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol, were unaffected in all of the treatment groups compared to vehicle controls. (e) However, L-4F (L) significantly rendered mouse HDL anti-inflammatory and LDL less inflammatory compared to control (C) as determined in cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (n = 10 mice per treatment group, three to four mice per pool). *P ≤ 0.05.
Woo et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R93 doi:10.1186/ar3020