Table 1

Study sample characteristics

Study

Patient sample

Control sample

Pharmacotherapy of patient sample

NSAIDs

DMARDs

Cortisteroids

Biologicals

Other

Pharmacotherapy comments:


Dekkers et al., 2001 [38]

N = 29 RA patients;

No exclusion criteria given

N = 30 HC;

Age and sex matched;

Exclusion: chronic disease, chronic pain, heart problems, hypertension

+

+

-1

o

o

1 patients taking oral prednisone (5-15 mg) or corticosteroid injections < 3 months prior to study onset excluded

Edwards et al., 2009 [39]

N = 19 RA patients;

Exclusion: history of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, Raynaud syndrome, vasculitis, peripheral vascular disease, other autoimmune or rheumatic disorders, current infection, recent history of substance abuse or dependence, pregnancy, mood or anxiety disorder

N = 21 HC;

No age and sex difference with patients;

Same exclusion criteria as patients;

+2

+

-

+

-3

2 24 h prior to study onset no NSAIDs intake;

3 Opioids, antidepressants excluded;

Stable medication regime of >1 months

Geenen et al., 1996/1998 [29,30]

N = 21 RA patients;

Exclusion: other serious diseases

N = 20 HC;

Age and sex matched; Exclusion: chronic pain, cardiovascular complaints, chronic diseases

+

+

o

o

-4

4 α and β adrenoceptor antagonists excluded (only for autonomic response evaluation)

Hinrichsen et al., 1989 [43]

N = 14 SLE patients;

No exclusion criteria given

N = 14 HC, N = 12 sarcoidosis patients;

Age and sex matched;

o

o

+5

o

o

5 24 h prior to study onset no corticosteroid therapy;

Hinrichsen et al., 1992 [44]

N = 14 SLE patients;

No exclusion criteria given

N = 14 HC, N = 10 HC taking corticosteroids;

Age and sex matched

o

o

+6

o

o

6 4-10 mg; 24 h prior to study onset no corticosteroid therapy

Hogarth et al., 2002 [31]

N = 23 SLE patients;

Exclusion: diabetes mellitus, hypertension Remark: some patients have comorbid Sjogren syndrome, Raynaud's phenomenon, history of cerebral lupus

N = 23 HC;

Age and sex matched;

Exclusion: diabetes mellitus, hypertension

+

+

+7

o

-8

7 1-30 mg;

8 Antihypertensive medication <1 week prior to study excluded

Jscobs et al., 2001 [40]

N = 9 RA patients, N = 7 SLE patients;

Exclusion: significant cardiovascular diseases, concurrent infections, history of other autoimmune disorders, drug or alcohol abuse; no exacerbation of disease < 4 weeks

N = 15 HC;

Age and sex matched;

Same exclusion criteria as patients

o

+

-

-

-9

9 adrenoceptor antagonists, antidepressants and benzodiazepines taken < 4 weeks prior to study onset excluded

Kurtais et al., 2006 [34]

N = 19 RA patients;

Exclusion: severe illness, other general contraindications for graded exercise test

N = 14 HC;

Age and sex matched;

Inclusion: sedentary Exclusion: chronic systemic disease, chronic pain, contraindication for exercise test

+

+

+10

o

o

10 7.5-15 mg;

Motivala et al., 2008 [41]

N = 21 RA patients;

Exclusion: cardiovascular disease, endocrine-related other immune disorders, acute or chronic infections, pregnancy, current psychiatric mood or anxiety disorder

N = 20 HC;

Age and sex matched;

Same exclusion criteria as patients

+11

+

+12

+

-13

11 24 h prior to study onset no NSAIDs taken;

12 < 10 mg (> 10 mg excluded);

13 Opioids, oral contraception excluded;

Stable medication regime >2 months

Palm et al., 1992 [42]

N = 18 RA patients;

No exclusion criteria given

N = 14 HC;

Age and sex matched;

Half of all controls had been hospitalized because of coronary heart disease or hypertension

+

+

+14

o

o

14 2,5-10 mg

Pawlak et al., 1999 [45]

N = 15 SLE patients (N < 10 for subanalyses: NK cytotoxicity and # β-adrenoceptors);

Exclusion: significant cardiovascular diseases, concurrent infections, history of other autoimmune disorders, drug or alcohol abuse

N = 15 HC (N < 10 for subanalyses: NK cytotoxicity and # β-adrenoceptors);

Age and sex matched;

Same exclusion criteria as patients

o

+

+15

o

-16

15 5-10 mg;

16 Adrenoceptor antagonists, antidepressants, benzodiazepines taken < 4 week prior to study onset excluded

Perry et al., 1989 [32]

N = 19 heterogeneous group of arthritis patients (RA, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, fibrositis);

No exclusion criteria given

N = 38 HC, 17 patients with myofascial pain;

No exclusion criteria given

+

o

O

o

+17

17 Benzodiazepines, psychotropics, and other medication affecting ANS, etc; 12 h prior to onset study no medication taken known to affect ANS

Pool et al., 2004 [35]

N = 7 RA patients, N = 6 SLE patients;

No exclusion criteria given

N = 10 HC;

HC recruited from hospital staff;

No exclusion criteria given

+

+

-

o

-18

18 Phenothiazines (e.o. drugs influencing PRL levels) excluded

Roupe et al., 2000 [46]

N = 20 JIA patients (N = 15 for in vivo analyses);

No exclusion criteria given

N = 20 HC (N = 14 for in vivo analyses);

Age and sex matched;

+

+

-

o

o

Shalimar et al., 2006 [33]

N = 51 SLE patients;

No exclusion criteria given

N = 30 HC;

Age and sex matched

o

o

O

o

-19

19 Medication known to affect HR, BP excluded

Veldhuijzen et al., 2005/2008 [36,37]

N = 21 RA patients;

Exclusion: previously confirmed acute coronary syndrome, DM, serious psychiatric diseases

N = 10 OA patients;

Same exclusion criteria as patients

+

+

+

+

+20

20 Analgesics included; no use of oral contraception


RA = rheumatoid arthritis, SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus, HC = healthy controls, JIA = juvenile idiopathic arthritis, OA = osteoarthritis, DM = diabetes mellitus. + = Included; - = Excluded; o = Not mentioned in article. ANS = autonomic nervous system, BP = blood pressure, DMARDs = disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, HR = heart rate, NSAIDs = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, PRL = prolactin.

de Brouwer et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R89   doi:10.1186/ar3016

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