Additional file 4.

Effect estimates (standardised mean differences) of aerobic exercise versus controls on pain at post treatment. Forest plots show standardised mean differences (effect sizes) from the random effects model (inverse variance method). A negative effect indicates that the endpoint score of the outcome in the exercise groups is lower than in control group in the study. The pooled (all studies together) effect size is weighted by the inverse variance of each study. IV, inverse variance (method); SD, standard deviation; Std. mean difference, standardised mean differences; random, random effects model; SD, standard deviation; total, number of patients; weight, relative weight (%) of the study in the calculation.

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Häuser et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R79   doi:10.1186/ar3002