Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Arthritis Research & Therapy and BioMed Central.

Open Access Research article

New insights into the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced avascular necrosis: microarray analysis of gene expression in a rat model

Mohammad Amin Kerachian1, Denis Cournoyer123, Edward J Harvey4, Terry Y Chow3, Louis R Bégin5, Ayoub Nahal6 and Chantal Séguin23*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Human Genetics, McGill University Health Center (MUHC), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC H3G 1A4, Canada

2 Department of Medicine, Division of Haematology, McGill University Health Center (MUHC), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC H3G 1A4, Canada

3 Department of Oncology, McGill University Health Center (MUHC), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC H3G 1A4, Canada

4 Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, McGill University Health Center (MUHC), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC H3G 1A4, Canada

5 Division of Anatomic Pathology, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 5400 Gouin Blvd, Montreal, QC H4J 1C5, Canada

6 Department of Pathology, McGill University Health Center (MUHC), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, QC H3G 1A4, Canada

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010, 12:R124  doi:10.1186/ar3062

Published: 25 June 2010

Abstract

Introduction

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) occurs variably after exposure to corticosteroids. Microvascular thrombosis is a common pathological finding. Since systemic thrombophilia is only weakly linked with ANFH, we propose that microvascular vessel pathology may be more related to local endothelial dysfunction and femoral head apoptosis. Corticosteroid effects on the endothelium and resultant apoptosis have been reported. We hypothesize that corticosteroids contribute to a differential gene expression in the femoral head in rats with early ANFH.

Methods

Besides bone marrow necrosis, which is a common sign in ANFH and reported in the early stages, we include the presence of apoptosis in this study as a criterion for diagnosing early disease. Forty Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomized to either a corticosteroid-treated group or an age-matched control group for six months. After sacrifice, the femoral heads were examined for ANFH. Total mRNA was extracted from femoral heads. Affymetrix exon array (Santa Clara, CA, USA) was performed on 15 selected RNA samples. Validation methods included RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Results

Although rat exon array demonstrated a significant upregulation of 51 genes (corticosteroid(+)/ANFH(+) VS control), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene was particularly over-expressed. Results were validated by RT-PCR and IHC. Importantly, A2M is known to share vascular, osteogenic and cartilage functions relevant for ANFH.

Conclusions

The findings suggest that corticosteroid-induced ANFH in rats might be mediated by A2M. Investigation of A2M as a potential marker, and a treatment target, for early ANFH should be carried out.