Hypertonic conditions activate nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 in osteoarthritis human articular chondrocytes. Relative expression of (a) nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) and its target genes (b) S100A4 and (c) SLC6A12 in primary (P0) and passaged (P1 to P3) chondrocytes cultured at 380 mOsm compared with 280 mOsm. Data are mean ± standard deviation, n = 12. Differences are indicated: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001.
van der Windt et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R100 doi:10.1186/ar3031