Hypertonic isolation and expansion increased chondrogenic marker expression in nonosteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. Relative expression of (a) AGC1, (b) SOX9, (c) COL2 and (d) COL2:COL1 ratio in primary (P0) and passaged (P1 to P3) nonosteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes (NHACs) cultured at 380 mOsm compared with cells cultured at 280 mOsm. (e) COL2 protein expression and (f) COL1 protein expression in P1 and P2 NHACs, normalized to α-tubulin. Data are mean ± standard deviation, n = 6. Differences from 280 mOsm controls are indicated: *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01.
van der Windt et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R100 doi:10.1186/ar3031