Immunohistochemical localisation of sema3A in the healthy and degenerate disc. (a) Healthy outer annulus fibrosus with cells demonstrating immunopositivity for sema3A with approximately 80% of the elongated AF cells being positive. Arrows highlight negative AF cells. (b) Degenerate NP demonstrating immunopositivity in the majority of chondrocyte-like cell clusters. (c) OAF in severely degenerate disc demonstrating a low immunopositivity. Arrows highlight positive AF cells. (d) Healthy OAF with the sema3A antibody omitted used as a negative control.
Tolofari et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R1 doi:10.1186/ar2898