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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Suppressive effect of secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide on interleukin-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase production in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, and its antiarthritic activity in hTNFtg mice

Maung-Maung Thwin1, Eleni Douni2, Pachiappan Arjunan3, George Kollias2, Prem V Kumar4 and Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone1*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, 4 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, 117597 Singapore

2 Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center, Alexander Fleming, 34 Al. Fleming Street, 16672 Vari, Greece

3 Porter Neuroscience Research Center, NEI/NIH, 35 Lincoln Drive, MSC 3731, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA

4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, 4 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, 117597 Singapore

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Citation and License

Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009, 11:R138  doi:10.1186/ar2810

Published: 18 September 2009

Abstract

Introduction

Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors are potent modulators of inflammation with therapeutic potential, but have limited efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to understand the inhibitory mechanism of phospholipase inhibitor from python (PIP)-18 peptide in cultured synovial fibroblasts (SF), and to evaluate its therapeutic potential in a human tumor necrosis factor (hTNF)-driven transgenic mouse (Tg197) model of arthritis.

Methods

Gene and protein expression of sPLA2-IIA, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 were analyzed by real time PCR and ELISA respectively, in interleukin (IL)-1β stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial fibroblasts cells treated with or without inhibitors of sPLA2 (PIP-18, LY315920) or MMPs (MMP Inhibitor II). Phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins was examined by cell-based ELISA. The effect of PIP-18 was compared with that of celecoxib, methotrexate, infliximab and antiflamin-2 in Tg197 mice after ip administration (thrice weekly for 5 weeks) at two doses (10, 30 mg/kg), and histologic analysis of ankle joints. Serum sPLA2 and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-6) were measured by Escherichia coli (E coli) assay and ELISA, respectively.

Results

PIP-18 inhibited sPLA2-IIA production and enzymatic activity, and suppressed production of MMPs in IL-1β-induced RA and OA SF cells. Treatment with PIP-18 blocked IL-1β-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and resulted in attenuation of sPLA2-IIA and MMP mRNA transcription in RA SF cells. The disease modifying effect of PIP-18 was evidenced by significant abrogation of synovitis, cartilage degradation and bone erosion in hTNF Tg197 mice.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrate the benefit that can be gained from using sPLA2 inhibitory peptide for RA treatment, and validate PIP-18 as a potential therapeutic in a clinically relevant animal model of human arthritis.