Figure 1.

Complex role of smoking in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. ACPA, anti-citrullinated protein antibody; AP-1, activator protein-1; EBV, Epstein–Barr virus; HQ, hydroquinone; IRF-5, interferon regulatory factor 5; nACh, nicotinic acetylcholine; PAD, peptidyl arginine deiminase; PADI4, gene of peptidyl arginine deiminase type 4; PTPN22, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RF, rheumatoid factor; SE, shared epitope.

Baka et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009 11:238   doi:10.1186/ar2751
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