Table 1

Examples of comorbid conditions by their relationship with rheumatoid arthritis

Estimated relationship to RA

Comorbid condition

Mechanism of relationship


High

Anemia

RA activity

Osteoporosis

CS, RA, decreased function

Bacterial infection

RA, CS, smoking, (TNF?)

Medium

Lymphoma

RA activity, (TNF?)

GI ulceration

NSAIDs, CS

Myocardial infarction

RA, CS

Heart failure

RA, CS

Low

Stroke

RA

Depression

Chronic pain

Fracture

CS, decreased function

Skin cancer

RA, TNF

Any cancer

No relationship

Appendicitis


CS, corticoid steroid treatment, GI, gastrointestinal; NSAID = Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNF, antitumor necrosis factor treatment.

Gabriel and Michaud Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009 11:229   doi:10.1186/ar2669