Mortality in rheumatoid arthritis by sex. Observed mortality in (a) female and (b) male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and expected mortality (based on the Minnesota white population). Observed is solid line, expected is dashed line, and the gray region represents the 95% confidence limits for observed. Reproduced from  with permission.
Gabriel and Michaud Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009 11:229 doi:10.1186/ar2669