Table 1

Risk factors for the major rheumatic diseases over the past 10 years

Disease

Host/Environmental risk factor

Gene


Rheumatoid arthritis

Diet (caffeine and Mediterranean diet)

PTPN22

Smoking

PADI4

Hormones

CTLA4

FCRL3

MHC2A

HLA DRB1

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF)

PTPN22

NRAMP1

IL-6

Psoriatic arthritis

Rubella vaccination

CARD15

Injury requiring medical consultation

MICA

Recurrent oral ulcers

TNF

Moving house

IL

Corticosteroids

Pregnancy

Ankylosing spondylitis

ARTS1

IL-23R

IL-1 gene cluster

Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Breast-feeding

MHC

Early natural menopause

ITGAM

Lipstick

IRF5

BLK

STAT4

PTPN22

FCGR2A

Scleroderma

Exposure to silica or organic solvents

Familial risk

HLA-DQA1

Fibrillin-1 SNP haplotypes

TGF-β

CTGF

Foetal microchimerism

Osteoarthritis

Obesity/Body mass index

IL-1 gene cluster

Physical activity

Frizzled-related protein-3 (FRZB) gene

Grip strength

Matrilin-3 gene

Previous injury

IL-4 receptor

Metalloproteinase gene ADAM12

Asporin (ASPN) gene

Estrogen receptor

Gout

High purine diet

TNF-α promoter

Dairy products

Hypertension

Pharmacologic agents

Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain

Physical trauma

Serotonin transporter gene

Somatisation

Familial risk

Health-seeking behaviour

COMT

Poor sleep


ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 12; ARTS1, type 1 tumor necrosis factor receptor shedding aminopeptidase regulator; BLK, B lymphoid tyrosine kinase; CARD15, caspase recruitment domain 15; COMT, catechol-O-methyltransferase; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; CTLA4, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4; FCGR2A, Fc fragment of IgG, low-affinity IIA, receptor (CD32); FCRL3, Fc-receptor like-3; IL, interleukin; IRF5, interferon regulatory factor 5; ITGAM, integrin, alpha M; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MHC2A, major histocompatibility complex 2A; MICA, class I major histocompatibility complex chain-related gene A; NRAMP1, natural-resistance-associated macrophage protein 1; PADI4, peptidyl arginine; PTPN22, protein tyrosine phosphatase; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; STAT4, signal transducer and activator of transcription 4; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-beta; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.

Oliver and Silman Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009 11:223   doi:10.1186/ar2585