Cell contact-dependent effector function. Spatial and temporal organization of synovial inflammatory infiltrates favor cell contact-dependent effector responses between T cells, B cells, macrophages, and resident stromal cells and adipocytes. The extent to which Tregs influence these effector pathways is presently unclear. ADAM, a disintegrin and metalloprotease; ADAM TS, ADAM with ThromboSpondin-like motifs; FLS, fibroblast-like synoviocytes; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HMGB1, high-mobility group box-1 proteins; IL, interleukin; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MΦ, macrophage; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PG, prostaglandin; RANKL, receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand; TCR, T-cell receptor; Teff, effector T cell; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; Treg, T regulatory cell; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
Cope Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008 10(Suppl 1):S1 doi:10.1186/ar2412