Table 1

Effects of cytokines on macrophages/monocytes during rheumatoid arthritis

Cytokine

Monocyte/macrophage activation

Cytokine release

ROI release

PG release

iNOS/NO release

MHC expression

FcγRs


IL-1

IL-7

IL-10

↑/↓

IL-15

↑ or ↓ (dose dependant)

IL-17

IL-18

IL-32

MIF

TGFβ

Early ↑, then ↓

TNFα

Type-I IFNs


Up and down arrows indicate increase and decrease, respectively. FcγRs, Fcγ receptors; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MIF, macrophage migration-inhibitory factor; NO, nitric oxide; PG, prostaglandin; ROI, reactive oxygen intermediates; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor. Adapted from [159].

Drexler et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008 10:216   doi:10.1186/ar2481