Raised APRIL levels in NPSLE patients compared with SLE patients without central nervous system symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of (a) APRIL and (b) BAFF in SLE patients separated into cerebrally healthy SLE patients and patients with NPSLE. (c) The quotient of CSF albumin × 103/serum albumin. Median values are depicted with a line. **P < 0.01. APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand; BAFF, B-cell activating factor of tumour necrosis factor family; NPSLE, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
George-Chandy et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008 10:R97 doi:10.1186/ar2484