Western blotting analysis. (a) Type-II collagen. (b) Type-IX collagen. (c) Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK). (d) Paxillin and phosphorylated Paxillin (p-Paxillin). (e) Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK (p-MAPK). There are no evident differences in the expression levels of total MAPK and p-MAPK between the two groups. (f) Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt). There were no differences found in the intensity the total Akt expression between the two groups, but p-Akt was found at higher levels in the LIPUS group (US+) in comparison with the control group (US-). (g) Cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. (h) Changes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) using MEK1 inhibitor (PD98059) and phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002). Chondrocytes were pretreated with MEK1 inhibitor (PD98059, 250 μM/ml) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002, 250 μM/ml) for 12 hours and 24 hours followed by stimulation with LIPUS for 20 minutes. Each sample was harvested 2 hours after LIPUS stimulation and the influence of these inhibitors was judged in western blotting analysis of the expression of PCNA.
Takeuchi et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008 10:R77 doi:10.1186/ar2451